Citrus aurantium, sometimes known as the sour orange, is a tree that belongs to the family Rutaceae ( citrus ). There are a variety of uses for the fruit, the leaves, the twigs, and the flowers in the culinary and scent industries.
The tree that bears the sour orange may grow up to ten meters in height. It began to spread across India around the beginning of the Christian period, and the Crusades were responsible for bringing it to southern France. The fruit became known as a Seville orange because of the Moors’ extensive cultivation efforts in the region around Seville in Spain.
The leaves of the sour orange tree are oval in shape, and they have a glossy appearance. The axils of the lower leaves always have a thorn in them. Very fragrant, the flower of bitter orange is used in the production of orange blossom absolute, orange flower water, and the essence of neroli, which are all utilized in the fragrance industry as well as in the flavoring of food. These extracts have a relatively high concentration of methyl anthranylate, which is the chemical that gives bitter orange flower its characteristic aroma. The branches are used in the production of gasoline petitgrain bitter orange, which is a linalyl acetate that is abundant in essential oil.
The peel was used to extract the essence of bitter orange, which was then employed in the production of triple sec, bitter, Grand Marnier, and Cointreau.
Citrons are presently utilized in the production of Maltese soda, which is called Kinnie. Citrons are native to Malta, which is where the bitter orange was first introduced before the orange.
Recent research has concentrated on the essential oils of bitter orange peel (bitter orange oil) and bitter orange branches (oil of bitter orange petitgrain), and it has verified that these oils have sedative and anxiolytic effects in animal models.
Historically, the oil that is extracted from seeds has been used as a treatment for cholesterol. Bitter orange is another name for this fruit, which is often known simply as the sour orange. The fruit is about the size of an orange but has a sweet and rough peel that may have a hint of green or yellow. Its flesh is sour, just somewhat juicy, very astringent, and packed with seeds all throughout.
The flowers of the bitter orange may be white or pink, and they are much bigger and more fragrant than those of the sweet orange. They start to blossom at the beginning of spring.
The fruit is most often consumed in a cooked or tinned form ( jam, syrup, marmalade ). Only the bitter orange, and not the sweet orange, is used in the production of the marmalade orange.
Citrus Aurantium / Bitter Orange
Citrus aurantium is the scientific name for both the tree and the fruit that go by the term “bitter orange.” Other names for this citrus variety include Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, and marmalade orange. There are several types of bitter orange that are cultivated for its essential oil, which has use in the fragrance and flavoring industries. A stimulant and an appetite reducer, bitter orange is also used in the practice of herbal medicine. The characteristically bitter flavor of marmalade is achieved by adding thin slices of the fruit’s peel.
After the Food and Drug Administration in the United States outlawed the use of the herbal stimulant ephedra, many manufacturers of herbal weight-loss products switched to using bitter orange as a replacement. This was done despite similar concerns regarding the potential for serious side effects and the lack of effectiveness. In a recent article published by the journal Consumer Reports, it was revealed that the consumption of bitter orange may be related with “fainting, heart-rhythm abnormalities, heart attack, stroke, and death.” This information was included in the article. The Rutaceae family of citrus trees includes Citrus aurantium, sometimes known as the bitter orange tree. There are several types of bitter oranges, and their essential oils are utilized in a variety of ways, including as a flavoring and fragrance agent, as well as in medical preparations. In addition to that, he is familiar with the names of oranges such as bitter orange, orange BIGARADE, Andalusian orange, orange pocket, and orange cachorrea.
Varieties of Citrus Aurantium
- Citrus aurantium subsp. amara is a perennial thorn tree that is native to the southeast region of Vietnam and is commonly planted there. Citrus aurantium varieties It is often used as a rootstock for many other citrus species. Its fruit is utilized in the production of jams, liqueurs, and Curacao, among other things. Oranges like these may also be used to extract the essential oil needed to make neroli oil. hydrosol created from the distillation of orange blossom water using flowers as the source material.
- The Seville orange, also known as the BIGARADE, which is native to the Mediterranean area. They are very desirable for making jam because they have a high pectin content, which results in both improved quality and quantity. Canard à l’orange, often known as duck in orange sauce, may be used to impart the taste of liqueur into recipes. Bergamot, also known as Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia, is cultivated in Italy to create bergamot oil, which is used in the production of several perfume and tea brands.
- Chinotto, also known as Citrus aurantium var. myrtifolia, is endemic to Italy.
- Daidai, also known as C. aurantium var. daidai, is a citrus variety that is used in traditional Chinese medicine as well as in the celebration of the New Year in Japan.
The present condition of dietary supplements
In order to assist manage obesity and as an appetite suppressant, the extract of bitter orange (and bitter juice n.) is used in the dietary supplement; nevertheless, using it without the supervision of a trained expert may be exceedingly hazardous. Synephrine, also called phenylephrine, is found in bitter orange and is a substance that is comparable to ephedrine. However, unlike ephedrine, synephrine only functions as an adrenergic (alpha) stimulant and carries the potential danger of ischemia shock and hypertension. Phenylephrine is a vasoconstrictor that is often used for therapeutic reasons in the treatment of coughs and colds. Its primary function is to regulate nasal secretions.
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