The sour orange (Citrus aurantium) is a tree of the family Rutaceae ( citrus ). The fruit , the leaves , the twigs and flowers have numerous applications in food and perfumery.
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The sour orange is a tree 5 to 10 meters. It spread early in the Christian era in India and was introduced into southern France by the Crusades. The Moors cultivated intensively near Seville in Spain, the fruit which earned its nickname of Seville orange.
The leaves of sour orange are oval, shiny, with a persistent thorn in the axils of lower leaves. Very fragrant, the flower of bitter orange is used in the manufacture of orange blossom absolute, the orange flower water, and the essence of neroli used in perfumery and to flavor foods. These extracts contain a high proportion of methyl anthranylate responsible for the typical note of bitter orange blossom. The branches are used for the manufacture of gasoline petitgrain bitter orange, an essential oil-rich linalyl acetate.
The peel has extracted the essence of bitter orange used for the manufacture of triple sec, of the bitter, the Grand Marnier and Cointreau.
In Malta, where the sour orange was introduced before the orange, the citron is now used in the manufacture of soda Maltese, Kinnie, which gives it its characteristic bitterness.
Recent studies have focused on the essential oils of peel (bitter orange oil) and branches (oil of bitter orange petitgrain) and confirmed their sedative and anxiolytic in animal models.
Traditionally, the oil obtained from seeds is given in case of cholesterol. The sour orange is a fruit, bitter orange, also called bitter orange. The fruit is smaller than the orange sweet and rough skin tinged with green or yellow. Its flesh is acidic, slightly juicy, very bitter, and contains many seeds.
The orange flowers are white or pink bitter, larger than those of sweet orange, and very fragrant. They bloom in early spring.
The fruit is mostly used cooked or canned ( jam, syrup, marmalade ). The marmalade orange is made only from the bitter orange, not the sweet orange.
Citrus Aurantium / Bitter Orange
The name “bitter orange”, also known as Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, and marmalade orange, refers to a citrus tree (Citrus aurantium) and its fruit. Many varieties of bitter orange are utilized for their essential oil, which is used in perfume and as a flavoring. Bitter orange is also employed in herbal medicine as a stimulant and appetite suppressant. Slivers of the rind are used to give marmalade its characteristic bitter taste.
After the U.S. Food and Drug Administration banned the herbal stimulant ephedra, manufacturers substituted bitter orange in many herbal weight-loss products, despite similar concerns about potentially serious side effects and lack of effectiveness. In a recent article by the publication Consumer Reports, it was furthermore reported that the use of bitter orange may be associated with “fainting, heart-rhythm disorders, heart attack, stroke, and death. Citrus aurantium, the bitter orange tree is a tree citrus family of Rutaceae. Many varieties of bitter oranges are used for their essential oil for perfume and flavor, or as a medicinal. He also knows the names of bitter orange, orange BIGARADE, Andalusian orange, orange pocket, and orange cachorreña.
Varieties of Citrus Aurantium
* Citrus aurantium subsp. amara tree is a perennial thorn in the southeast of Vietnam, widely cultivated. It is widely used as rootstock for other species of Citrus. Its fruit is used for making jams, liqueurs Triple sec and Curaçao. These oranges, also obtained by extracting essential oil for neroli oil. Of flowers and obtained by distillation of orange blossom water a hydrosol.
* Seville orange (or BIGARADE) of the Mediterranean region. Prized for jam, because they are high in pectin, giving better quality and quantity. Also in sauces, flavor the liqueur with the Canard à l’orange (duck in orange sauce).* Bergamot , C. aurantium subsp. bergamia has grown in Italy to produce the oil of bergamot, a component of many brands of perfume and tea.
* C. aurantium var. myrtifolia – Chinotto, a native of Italy.
* Daidai, C. aurantium var. daidai , used in traditional Chinese medicine and in celebrating the Japanese New Year.
State of dietary supplements
The extract of bitter orange (and bitter juice n.) is used in the dietary supplement, to help control obesity and as an appetite suppressant, but without professional control can be extremely dangerous. Bitter orange contains synephrine known as phenylephrine, a drug similar to ephedrine, but only acts as a stimulant adrenergic ( alpha ) with a possible risk of ischemic shock and hypertension. Also commonly used for therapeutic purposes in cough and cold phenylephrine as a vasoconstrictor to control nasal secretions.
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